|  Damage was localized to the center parts of the city, leaving much of the residential outer rim unscathed, but the damage in the affected area was extensive.  Prior to the event, estimates about ground movement on the lakebed were generally accepted and a number of buildings were built on these estimates. Mexico , Despite warnings and predictions, in 2005, an estimated 32 million people live in the high-risk lakebed area.  Shortly thereafter, these youths decided to formally band together in February 1986. The event caused serious damage to the Greater Mexico City area and the deaths of at least 5,000 people.  The buildings most damaged were from 6 to 15 stories in height.  Affiliated with the Civil Protection Committee is the "Brigada de Topos de Tlatelolco" (Mole Brigade of Tlatelolco).  When the government did give estimates of the number killed, they ranged from 7,000 to 35,000.  As most of the collapsed buildings were of recent construction and public works projects, the government was seen at fault due to mismanagement and corruption in these constructions. Heavy machinery, medical supplies, and excavation equipment descended into the city to help with rescue efforts. All that remains of the factory is a small empty lot with a bronze statue of a woman sewing. On Line 1, there was no service in stations Merced, Pino Suárez, Isabel la Católica, Salto del Agua, Balderas or Cuauhtémoc. , In the hours and days immediately after the first shock, there was an enormous response and solidarity among the city population of 18 million people. Much of Mexico's volcanic and seismic activity stems from the movement of the North American plate against the Cocos and Pacific plates and it is one of the most active trenches in the world. The region's infrastructure was severely affected. The 2,158 beds of the Ministry of Health (SSA) were lost, representing 43 percent of its capacity in the city. , On the other hand, the disaster created an opportunity for political opponents, especially at the grassroots level. | Mayor Miguel Ángel Mancera presides over a minute of silence for the earthquake victims at the 30-year commemoration, Rescue workers at the Plaza de la Solidaridad during the ceremony. On Sept. 19, 1985, an earthquake struck Mexico City — and it was a big one, rating at 8.1 magnitude. , Shockwaves from the earthquake hit the mouth of the Río Balsas on the coast at 7:17 am and hit Mexico City, 350 km (220 mi) away, two minutes later at 7:19 am. Apartments were built on the remainder of the property. 516,000 m2 (5,550,000 sq ft) of asphalt was damaged, and 137 schools collapsed. Its reputation was damaged further when the government seemed to be deliberately downplaying the number of earthquake victims. 1985 Mexico City earthquake was a Geography and places good articles nominee, but did not meet the good article criteria at the time. Less than 15 minutes after the quake, thousands of people in the capital lay dead and the Mexican economy was shattered for years to come. ↵ Daniel Hernandez, “The 1985 Mexico City Earthquake, Remembered,” Los Angeles Times, September 20, 2010. , The stepping-in of non-PRI organizations to take over where the government could not, also took its toll on PRI's reputation. , In contrast, the network of twenty four community general hospitals with 1,600 beds belonging to the city (federal district) were not affected as these were spread out beyond the city center and the old lakebed. , Cuauhtémoc, which includes the historic downtown, suffered the most damage. Eventually, the columns gave way. Critics argued that the lack of enforcement of such codes was indicative of corrupt practices in all levels of government.  The falling debris also killed street vendors who worked just outside the studio building.  The 19 September quake was a multiple event with two epicenters and the second movement occurring 26 seconds after the first. Ground shaking lasted more than five minutes in places along the coast and parts of Mexico City shook for three minutes, with an average shaking time of 3–4 minutes. The southern part of the city rests on hardened basalt lava flows. While high as an absolute number, it compares to other earthquakes of similar strength in Asia and other parts of Latin America where death tolls have run between 66,000 and 242,000 for earthquakes of magnitude 7.8 or above. As an aftershock struck on 20 September, the Mexican government then announced that it would be willing to accept help. 7th Sep, 2015. Though the epicenter for the 1985 earthquake was over 200 miles away from Mexico City, the disaster nearly flattened the capital. , The "Torre de Hospitalización" was built in 1970 with the main building being twelve stories tall. Most bodies were identified by personal effects, some by dental records and some were so mangled that they wound up being cremated without ever being identified, due to the lack of morgue facilities. ", Shortly after the event, the PRI began to face serious challenges at the polls, resulting in attempts to rig elections. ↵ , The National Medical Center of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) was considered the most important hospital complex in Latin America with over 2,300 beds and the largest medical library in the country. , However, the most memorable story to come from this event was the rescue of nearly all the newborn babies that were in the nursery at the time.  One exceptional case was in Ciudad Guzmán, Jalisco, where about 60 percent of the buildings were destroyed, with about 50 dead. Taller buildings have their own frequencies of vibration. After the shaking stopped, they both left the Televisa studios through a back door, and hours later they were back on the air in the studios of Canal de las Estrellas to broadcast live what was happening. The reason these stations were closed was not due to damage to the Metro proper, but rather because of surface rescue work and clearing of debris. In addition, five of the largest private hospitals had to be evacuated. Structures built between 1976 and 1985 suffered the least damage.  An alarm is supposed to go off in Mexico City (similar to an air-raid siren) when an earthquake of 6.0 or higher is detected. The old lakeshore area also has a fairly high water content, allowing movement, though not as much as the lakebed. Part of the building was only slightly damaged, while another part of it collapsed. Unofficial sources put that figure much higher. It was constructed with two hundred piles extending down over one hundred feet (30 m) into the stable earth stratum.  This translates to more than 30,000 housing units completely destroyed and another 68,000 units damaged. The earthquake occurred in the Pacific Ocean, off the coast of the Mexican state of Michoacán, a distance of more than 350 km (217 mi) from the city, in the Cocos Plate subduction zone, specifically in a section of the fault line known as the Michoacán seismic gap. Everyone ran from the studio but Llamas and Guerrero stayed, hiding under their anchor desks.  The fall left a huge piece of concrete blocking the road that leads to the Zócalo.  The federal government's first public response was President de la Madrid's declaration of a period of mourning for three days starting from 20 September 1985. , The collapse of this factory exposed the deplorable conditions to which many of these women were subjected. The deal generally worked; movements like CUD moderated their stances and agencies like SEDUE and PRHP made progress in rebuilding housing, regardless of political affiliation. Over 720,000 tons of debris was removed during the first six weeks after the event. He offered a commitment to build 48,000 housing units in one year if the groups would all sign a "Convenio de concertación democrática para la reconstrucción de vivienda" (Democratic agreement for the reconstruction of housing). “Earthquake of 1985,” by Marvin Alisky. This was refused. The old lakebed, with its high water content, is easily moved or compressed. On September 19, 1985 an earthquake with a magnitude of 8.1 struck Mexico City, Mexico at 7:18 a.m. Five people were reported killed, many were injured, and extensive damage occurred in the vicinity of Norcia. , Several notable buildings were relatively untouched by the quake. In the days after the quake, military and police cordoned off ten buildings to keep people out, leading a number of them to sleep on the streets. The epicenter was located approximately six miles offshore near the town of Zihuatanejo in the state of Michoacan. Despite the loss of 5,000 hospital beds, there was never a shortage of facilities for the injured. President de la Madrid made relatively few public appearances afterwards and during those he did, he received strong heckling, in contrast to the near-reverence that past presidents enjoyed at such events. Many of the older colonial buildings have survived hundreds of years on the lakebed simply because they are not tall enough to be affected by the resonance effect. , At the time of the earthquake, Mexico was in its fourth year of a foreign debt crisis, and a contracting economy causing serious political problems for the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). Due to soil conditions in this area, ground motions were especially amplified at a frequency of about 0.  Reconstruction of the studio building began in 1995 and ended in 2000. , The Conalep SPP was a building located between the streets of Iturbide and Humboldt, in the Historic Center of Mexico City, which succumbed to the Richter-scale 8.1-degree earthquake on 19 September 1985. How can an earthquake cause so much damage over 200 miles from its focus? Most of the injured had contusion injuries and many suffered from dehydration, with the severity of the dehydration increasing with those rescued later. Two reasons are the resonance in the lakebed sediments and the long duration of the shaking. The number of people with potable water went from six million to 90,000. On 11 October 1985, the President granted a seven-minute audience to the heads of a dozen popular movements, which turned into a 45-minute meeting where de la Madrid was handed a document outlining what would remain the movements' core demands: expropriation of all condemned buildings, followed by a "popular" and "democratic" reconstruction project which would include the active participation of the community movement. However, none of these regulations had an event like 1985's in mind when passed. The western and northwestern parts of the city are outside the old lakeshores and are located on sands from eroding volcanic cones that surround the Valley of Mexico. The space is now the Plaza de la Solidaridad park. , All the buildings suffered damage but along with the collapsed Nuevo León building, buildings such as those called Veracruz, Coahuila, Zacatecas, Oaxaca, Puebla, Jalisco, Churubusco, Guelatao, 2 de Abril, 15 de Septiembre, Chihuahua, Tamaulipas, ISSSTE 11, Querétaro, Guanajuato, Ignacio Comonfort, Ignacio M. Altamirano, Jesús Terán, Ponciano Arriaga, Niños Héroes and 20 de Noviembre suffered severe damage such as deeply cracked foundations. Mexico City Earthquake 19 September 1985 The epicentre of the earthquake was at the border between the states of Michoacán and Guerrero more than 300 kilometres away, yet Mexico City suffered the most damage. Ambassador to Mexico, John Gavin, observing the resulting damage of the earthquake. About 5,000 bodies were recovered from the debris and represent the total of legally certified deaths but does not include those who were missing and never recovered.  However, the most commonly cited figures are around 10,000. 1985 MÉXICO CITY EARTHQUAKE MARIANA: the 1985 mexico City earthquake was a magnitude 8.1 earthquake that struck some states of Mexico and Mexico City on the early morning of 19 September 1985 at around 7:19 AM (CST), caused the deaths of at least 10,000people and serious damage to the Greater Mexico City Area. The number of bodies recovered was high during those first days as well but the numbers dramatically increased between days 17 and 31. Although there was severe damage in the coastal regions, the real disaster happened 220 miles away in Mexico City. La Villita, and Infiernillo Dams, near the coast, were superficially damaged and undamaged respectively. It was founded in 1847, converting the old convent of San Pablo to treat wounded soldiers from the Mexican–American War. , It was located at the corner of Balderas and Avenida Juárez in the historic center and completely collapsed within moments of the quake. The damage was concentrated in a 25 km2 area of Mexico City, 350 km from the epicenter. We will wait just a second so we can keep talking. , The energy released during the main event was equivalent to approximately 1,114 nuclear weapons exploding. Mexico City residents re-lived a nightmare after a 7.1-magnitude earthquake killed hundreds and caused widespread destruction on Tuesday, the same day that a huge tremor in 1985 killed thousands. , Heavy machinery was unable to get to the site until five days after the earthquake. based on experience gained from earthquakes in 1957 and 1979. One interesting characteristic was that many buildings had their upper floors collapse, leaving the lower floors relatively undamaged. This included the 700 beds lost with the complete collapse of Juárez Hospital and the gynecology-obstetrics tower of the General Hospital of Mexico. September 19 Earthquake shakes Mexico City On September 19, 1985, a powerful earthquake strikes Mexico City and leaves 10,000 people dead, 30,000 injured and thousands more homeless. , While not on or near any fault line like San Francisco or Los Angeles, Mexico City is vulnerable to earthquakes. , At the time of the earthquake, Mexico City had one of the most stringent building codes,[compared to?] Photo Mehmet Celebi, USGS, A lake bed in a basin, however, is one of the worst grounds for constructing a building. Some types of foundations, particularly those involving piles driven into clay and held in place by friction, turned out to be weak. Considerable damage and injuries were reported in other parts of the Umbria region. 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